In military history, military science had been used during the period of Industrial Revolution as a general term to refer to all matters of military theory and technology application as a single academic discipline, including that of the deployment and employment of troops in peacetime or in battle.
The Defence (Citizen Military Forces) Act (1943) was federal Australian law passed on 26 January 1943 which extended the area in which the Militia were obliged to serve from Australia and its territories to the South-Western Pacific Zone (SWPZ), a triangle bounded by the equator and the 110th and 159th meridians of longitude, for the duration of the war and up to six months of Australia ceasing to be involved in hostilities.
History of the Act
On 20 October 1939, a decade after the Scullin government abolished universal military training, and some six weeks after Australia had entered World War II, Prime Minister Robert Menzies issued a press statement announcing the reintroduction of compulsory military training with effect from 1 January 1940. The arrangements required unmarried men turning 21 in the call up period to undertake three months training with the Militia. Under the Defence Act (1903), they could not be compelled to serve outside Australia or its territories. For this purpose, a separate, volunteer force, the Second Australian Imperial Force (AIF) was raised for service overseas.
There are four types of defenders: centre-back, sweeper, full-back, and wing-back. The centre-back and full-back positions are essential in most modern formations. The sweeper and wing-back roles are more specialised for certain formations.
A centre-back (also known as a central defender or centre-half) defends in the area directly in front of the goal, and tries to prevent opposing players, particularly centre-forwards, from scoring. Centre-backs accomplish this by blocking shots, tackling, intercepting passes, contesting headers and marking forwards to discourage the opposing team from passing to them.
With the ball, centre-backs are generally expected to make short and simple passes to their teammates, or to kick unaimed long balls down the field. For example, a clearance is a long unaimed kick intended to move the ball as far as possible from the defender's goal.
The UCLVirusWatch study found that antibodies generated by two doses of the Oxford/AstraZeneca and Pfizer/BioNTech vaccines started to wane as early as six weeks after the second shot, in some cases falling more than 50% over 10 weeks ... a further 4,500 participants in the study.
In this study, he took four breeding pairs of mice and placed them inside a "utopia" ... "For an animal so simple as a mouse, the most complex behaviors involve the interrelated set of courtship, maternal care, territorial defence and hierarchical intragroup and intergroup social organization," he concluded in his study.
A new study by University of Alberta biophysicists has revealed how a rare structure forms within RNA from the Zika virus that makes it resistant to our bodies’ immune systems ... Our cells are full of enzymes called RNases that chew up—or degrade—RNA from invading viruses as part of our cells’ defences against infection.
London... The UAE is one of 40 countries that had access to the NSO spyware that is able to hack into and secretly take control of a mobile phone ... John Chipman, the chief executive of the defence thinktank the International Institute for Strategic Studies, which runs an annual conference in Bahrain, one of the UAE’s allies, The Guardian said ... .
No, there is no outbreak of cuts ... Since that study, a number of independent researchers have confirmed the potential benefits of restricting blood flow during exercise. Shawn M Arent, chair of the department of exercise science at the University of South Carolina, is currently conducting a study on its effects for the defence department ... .
Established in 2011 and biennial in nature, the José Aparecido de Oliveira prize, named after one of the main creators of the CPLP, honors personalities and institutions that stand out in the defence, appreciation and promotion of principles and values and community objectives, as well as in carrying out studies and related research work.
New Zealand has long prided itself on having an “independent” foreign policy that charts a middle path between great powers ... It also raises the question ... Kiwi wars ... Read more ... Read more ... According to David Capie, director of New Zealand’sCentre for Strategic Studies, “There isn’t a deep conversation about foreign and defence policy” in New Zealand ... .